lunes, 4 de mayo de 2009

LA SOLDADURA.... ACERO Y CHISPAS


Existe infinidad de métodos de soldaduras, la mayoría de ellos muy especializados para trabajos específicos. Sin embargo, hay dos tipos muy comunes, la eléctrica y la oxiacetilénica ( conocida como autógena ) con las cuales se satisfacen la mayoría de los requerimientos típicos, tanto de soldadura como de corte de materiales metálicos, principalmente ferrosos.
El principio físico al fenómeno de unión por soldadura, es cuando dos metales se calientan por encima de cierto punto, es posible lograr su unión a nivel molecular. La forma de lograr esta temperatura es lo que diferencia los procesos de soldadura, así como la existencia o no de material de aporte, es decir, de una pieza, que se consumirá durante el proceso de soldado, aportando material y relleno entre las dos piezas de soldar.
En la soldadura eléctrica, el calor se logra estableciendo un arco voltaico entre el material de aporte y las piezas a soldar. Por esta razón, el material de aporte se polariza con un electrodo, y las piezas a soldar, con el otro, siendo posible soldar con corriente continua, según el uso y tipo de soldadura a efectuar.
Este método genera, además del calor, ondas electromagnéticas indeseables, incluso en una franja de espectro que resultan altamente perjudiciales para la piel y los ojos. Por esta razón, el Equipo de Seguridad Personal es indispensable, el cual incluye como mínimo, gafas con lentes polarizados ( especialmente para esta tipo de soldadura, por ejemplo. No sirven los de autógena).
En soldadura, oxiacetilénica, el calor se entrega al material al generarlo mediante llama de combustión del acetileno, para lo cual se combina con oxígeno gracias a un mezclador y una boquilla, que reciben por un lado oxígeno y por el otro acetileno, a través de reguladores de presión independientes.
Se usa no solo para reparación y unión de partes, sino también para precalentar piezas, para cortar metales y para proyección de aleaciones en polvo.
La manipulación de este equipo presenta riesgo de explosión extremadamente alto cuando es realizada por personal no calificado o descuidado, pero si se siguen todos los procedimientos establecidos, resulta segura y de gran utilidad.
Cuando el mezclador genera un exceso de acetileno se denomina: de llama carburante o reductora, y se usa para soldar metales blancos ( como aluminio o magnesio ). Cuando el balance con el oxígeno es parejo, se denomina llama neutra, y sirve para soldar cobre, acero, hierro fundido y sus aleaciones. Cuando hay exceso de oxígeno, se usa para precalentar y para cortar.
En soldadura de precisión o con piezas de ciertas dimensiones, es necesario precalentar las piezas, para que la diferencia de temperatura, y por tanto de deformación térmica, entre el punto bajo soldadura y sus vecinos más alejados, no sea muy alta, y así las piezas no se deforman al contraerse nuevamente cuando se enfríen luego de soldadas.
Adicionalmente es necesario preparar las piezas con una buena limpieza previa, y asegurarse de que no existan grasas o aceites en su superficie o vecindades ( resulta explosivo en estas condiciones ).
Para lograr una buena soldadura se requiere destreza, y también una acertada elección de las llama en el caso oxiacetilénico, y tipos de polaridad y de amperaje en el caso eléctrico. Para ello existen tablas y recomendaciones de los fabricantes de equipos y de soldaduras ( materiales de instruccionales ).
Uno de los factores que más afectan la calidad de una soldadura es la presencia de oxígeno libre durante su fraguado, pues causa oxidación. Para evitarlo, las soldaduras estándar tienen en su electrodo un revestimiento que se adhiere a la soldadura durante su enfriamiento ( la escoria debe removerse después ), y liberan gases protectores al calentarse, desplazando así buena parte del aire atmosférico ( con su 21% de oxígeno ) durante los instante critico del proceso.

FUENTE: TSU Esp. Simón E. Rámos / EL MUNDO DE LAS OBRAS CIVILES

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